Nitrogen Fixing Cover Crops and Living Mulch

A list of nitrogen-fixing cover crops in Portugal and when to plant them in Portugal. Research based on our land in Central Portugal.

Cover Crops Terminology

Cover crops: Annual plants such as clover that you plant on a resting field or bed to prevent soils drying out, washing away and to fix nitrogen into the ground.

Mulch: Organic biomass that is used to cover the soil to prevent soils drying out, prevent weeds from growing, stop topsoil washing in rain and to provide nutrients to the microorganisms in the soil (e.g. hay)

Living green mulch: For example, clover can be grown around plants to act as a living mulch to prevent soils from drying out, hold off weeds, fix nitrogen and attract pollinators and predatory insects that may eat your pests.

Green Manure: This is cuttings of cover crops that can be used in compost piles or as green mulch (see mulch above). Green mulch is higher in nitrogen than brown mulch (e.g. dry leaves, straw or hay)


 Annual nitrogen-fixing cover crops:

Listed below are the ideal times to plant cover crops in Portugal that fix nitrogen in the soil. However, I am sure most of them can be planted at different times just with a lower yield or germination rate. Many other cover crops bring up nutrients (dynamic accumulators) and create biomass (lots of green mulch) that can be planted but this list just refers to nitrogen-fixing cover crops.

English name (Latin name / Portuguese name) – There are many varieties for some of these but we have listed at least one. We have underlined the ones we have grown successfully at this time of year. The other ones we have not tried to grow yet at that time of year.

Spring > Summer planting Planting:

      1. Chickpeas (February) (Cicer Arietinum / Grão de Bico)
      2. Clovers (Trevo)
        1. Subterranean Clover (Trifolium subterraneum / Trevo Subterranean) – available in organic bulk seeds at the local agrological shop in Portugal. An advantage of this is that it is self-fertile, however, it does not attract as many pollinators as other clovers.
        2. White Clover (Trifolium Repens) – Shorter  and spreads more than red clover, so it is better to plant as a green mulch around plants
        3. Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense) – Taller than white clover so it is better as a green manure
      3. Alfalfa ( Medicago Sativa / Alfalfa)
      4. Mustards (Sinapis hirta / Mostarda) 
      5. Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor / Sorgo)
      6. Millet (Various types of millet with various types of Latin names / painço)
      7. Phacelia (Phacelia Tanacetifolia / )
      8. Vetch (Vicia cracca / Ervilhaca) – Naturally occurring on our land
      9. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata/ feijão fradeThere are many examples of summer beans that can be planted
      10. Buckwheat (Trigo Mourisco)
      11. Yellow serradella (Ornithopus Compressus / Serradela) – Occurring naturally on our land

Autumn/Winter planting

      1. Clovers (Trevo) – Naturally occurring on our land
        1. Subterranean Clover (Trifolium Subterraneum / Trevo Subterranean) – available in organic bulk seeds at the local agrological shop in Portugal. It is good as its self fertile, its bad as it does not attract so any pollinators
        2. White Clover (Trifolium repens)
        3. Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)
      2. Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa / Alfalfa)
      3. Rye (Secale cereale / Centeio) – Lots of biomass in spring
      4. Ryegrass (Lolium  / Azevém)
      5. Oats (Avena Sativa / Aveia)
      6. yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus / Serradela) – Naturally occurring on our land, can withstand heavy gazing
      7. Vetch (Vicia Cracca / Ervilhaca) – Naturally occurring on our land
      8. Fava Beans/Broad Beans (Vicia Faba/ Fava)
      9. Peas (Pisum Sativum / Ervilha)
      10. Chickpeas (February) (Cicer arietinum / Grão de bico)
      11. Lupins (Lupinus / Tremoço)

How do cover crops fix nitrogen?

On the roots of these plants lives a nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobium and others). These bacteria take in nitrogen from the air within the soil and the nitrogen is then available from the plant’s roots, leaves and stems. If you do not have the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in your soils you should inoculate the cover crop seeds in a purchased inoculant.  You can check to see if they are living on the roots of your cover crops by digging them out and checking for nodules on the roots.

To fix this nitrogen into the ground, the plants should be either:

  1. Chopped before they go to seed and allowed to decompose in the ground, a technique called ‘chop and drop‘, then one should ideally dig the green mulch into the ground or cover it with an additional layer of brown mulch, to ensure the nitrogen isn’t released into the atmosphere but sequestered back into the soil.
  2. Allowing animals to  graze it and recycle it is a less efficient way of fixing the nitrogen because some nitrogen from urine and manure will volatilize (passed off as vapour) as ammonia and is lost from the system
  3. Add the green mulch to compost piles
  4. Add the green mulch around plants in other areas of the land (then cover the green mulch with brown mulch)

Don’t forget to let some go to seed so you can replant in the next season.

Mulch layering

We usually use a little compost or aged manure, which is then completely covered with green mulch (you should not be able to see the compost or manure). We then completely cover this with a thick layer of hay and then a thin layer of straw (again the previous layer should not be visible). The hay has a higher nutritional value for the soil than straw but can harbour seeds from weeds so we cover it with straw which does not contain weed seeds and stays dryer so does not act as a medium for weeds to germinate on. The straw we use has grain seeds of plants which are nitrogen fixers so often a further green cover crop is grown from these seeds that can be chopped and dropped for further nitrogen fixation.

Interplanting with annuals

We have been planting clovers around our trees and annual plants as these fix nitrogen and stop weeds growing in beds. There are different theories on when to plant the cover crops around different annuals, but I would suggest doing it a few weeks after you plant annual crops such as cabbages and corn for less competition.

Below, you can see that the bed in one of our annual gardens is covered in green. In this small bed, we had summer crops of tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, brussel sprouts, leeks and onions. The broccoli leaves are still growing and being harvested for the chickens and salads. It has a variety of herbs to attract beneficial insects and to repel pests. It also has the complete area covered in a variety of clovers which we allowed to go to seed.  We have been collecting the seeds for the past few weeks. This week I will pull out all of the plants which will either go to the kitchen or to the chickens. I will cut back all of the clovers and leave the leaves in the bed (chop and drop) and dig them into the ground with a little bit of compost and cover with hay and straw. Ideally, some of the clovers will find a way to grow back from the roots and seeds to fix more nitrogen, I will then leave this bed to rest for one year. During this time I will continue to chop and drop the clovers.

cover crops portugal

Perennial nitrogen fixers

Growing annual nitrogen fixers is a quick method to get nitrogen into the soil. There are also nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs that can do the job year after year without maintenance. These can be planted in between nitrogen demanding trees, around annual beds or in pasture fields as a lot of them also act as fodder crops providing more sustainable food for livestock as well as shade. I will write about these in a future blog. However until these are established, the quickest way is with the annual cover crops mentioned above.


Click to access Cover-crops-Inoculation.pdf

Click to access FSA-2160.pdf

Click to access Ficha_tecnica_096_2001.pdf

9 thoughts on “Nitrogen Fixing Cover Crops and Living Mulch

  1. Rhodri Reply

    Really interesting article. We were at the Suryalila retreat in Spain late last year just before they starting planting their food forest. I got back and ordered “The Carbon Farming Solution” which I’m currently enjoying reading.

    I came across this video yesterday which I found super informative.

  2. Lucy Reply

    Excellent and very helpful article, thank you 🙂 I recently bought 1.8 hectares in Canet lo Roig, Castellon in Spain and so including the sowing times was great for me! I want to build a large root cellar following a turkey nest or ring dam construction with a roof on top. I’m looking for a consultant who can advise me one the feasibility and indeed legal implications here in Spain. Do you by any chance know of any natural builders that might be able to help? I’m willing to pay a consultancy fee. Many thanks and good luck with your wonderful project.

  3. Nevo arad Reply

    Hi! My name is nevo and im from Israel. Me and my friend about to begin a trip from Porto to Lisbon and we are looking for farm we can volunteer in exchange for hospitality. We here about this farm from “shefa farm” near you and we really like to here about your way and hours you except from the volunteer

  4. […] planted a mixed cover crop of nitrogen fixers over the winter garden (this is an area of our farm wi...
  5. crpt2008 Reply

    Very good article. I’ll had my 2 cents, to build up on your excellent information. 😉
    9 – Lupins (Lupinus / Tremoso) In Portuguese should read Tremoço. The “ç” is very important in Portuguese language, also in Catalan French, Turkish,.. and a bunch more Indo-European languages. 😉
    2 – Buckwheat (Trigo Sarraceno) More common, Trigo Mourisco.
    Although the expression “Sarraceno” is also used in Portugal. It rarely happens. With the same meaning, etc. But by far and wide the most common expression is Mouro (masculine). As can still be seen in examples like the city of Moura (feminine) in the Alentejo region. Or Mouraria the popular neighborhood in Lisbon.

    Jumping to a more serious detail, Mimosas, From the ACACIA family are an invading species from Australia. Ideally to be replaced ASAP with native species. They thrive particularly well after wild fires, as you know a big problem in Portugal. After reestablishing the soil conditions, they’re best when turned into compost. 😉

    Keep up the good work.

    1. Laurence Manchee Reply

      Thank you for the comments, i have updated the portuguese mistakes.
      Yes we are slowly trying to replace the mimosa, but it is hard as it keeps growing back. So we are just enjoying woodchopping it all and using it as mulch. We have tried this winter to debark lots of standing trees to see if that works. So lets see

  6. Jude Irwin Reply

    Hi you say, “Peas (Pisum Sativum / Ervinhas)” The correct Portuguese for peas is ERVILHAS. I live in Beiras area of Portugal, near Figueiró dos Vinhos. We use no-till methopd and thickly mulch with woodchip to retain soil moisture, lower soil temperature for healthier roots, suppress weeds and feed the spoil with slowly decomposting, nitrogen-making wood. You can read about it on It works beautifully, and the earthworms (minhocas) that deserted the dry-as dust, nitrogen-poor land when it was being dug every year, are starting to return. Brilliant. They will do the tilling for us, aerate and manure the soil.
    Our elderly Portuguese neighbour’s patch is just as bad as ever, so I have convinced him (and that was the hardest part) to let it lie fallow this year while we plant a variety of green manures for him ( diversity aids nutrition and soil health). I am using Phacelia tanecetifolium (a tansy), Lupinus angustifolius (which will grow even around eucalyptus) and Medicago sativus (alfalfa). We’ll overwinter it, cut the tops off before flowering (allowing a strip to mature to seed and allow bees to pollinate, because they LOVE this plant) and put tops on our compost heaps. The rest of the plants, after a few days to wilt and soften, we will dig in to improve the soil fertility and structure. After that, it’s up to my neighbour to choose what he wants to plant, or what he’d like us to plant for him. Lots of people were sceptical about our use of mulch, and full of “myths” about the damage we would be doing. But they’ve seen our heavy crops, and how we’ve halved our water use. Can’t argue with that. Now they want to know more, and we chop waste wood for others. Hey. One more thing. If you have invasive “wattles” – mimosa, acacia, whatever…cutting won’t help. They will simply sucker from the roots and proliferate. The only thing you can do to get rid of them is wait until the trees are a little older and then ring bark them (take a wide circle of bark off all the way around the trunks). When they trees die, dig out the whole thing, root and all. And chip them for mulch!

    1. Laurence Manchee Reply

      Thanks for your comment. Yeah the mimosa is a constant battle but we at least get a constant flow of green wood chips from it for our woodchip bes. I have tried ring barking a bunch about a year ago, the tree looks almost dead now but it still have shoots growing from the base of the tree. o you know if these will die too?
      I love the alfafa, it just keeps coming back! we have it in one of our chicken runs and when the chickens moved to another run the alfafa grew back!
      I hope your project with your neighbor goes well.

  7. Jude Irwin Reply

    Thanks. Sorry about all the typos in my previous post. I can’t guarantee the mimosa shoots will also die. With wattle and eucalypts, we sometimes have to resort to using caustic soda (be VERY careful with it!) applied to deep cross cuts into stumps, or augur holes in stumps. It can take 3-6 months for the soda to seep trough the entire root system, but once it does, it dries the whole business up completely. Then you are best grubbing up the stump. Not sure what you mean by “wood chips for our woodchip bes” ?? Glad to hear about alfalfa coming back. I know chickabiddies love it and most fresh greens. I also grow alfalfa (good Moorish Arabic word) sprouts for use in salads or as a garnish atop some fancy starter like goat’s cheese with walnuts, olive oil / balsamic dressing and pomegranate seeds. BTW, have you ever tried making small hurdles or borders for raised beds with woven wattle? I have a plan to try this very soon. Husband is making slab for retaining wall shortly, and I have asked for a row of holes about 3 in/7.5cm deep with diameter of about 1 inch/2.5cm for the uprights. If successful, this will at least get some good from the danged wattles and pretty up some beds in the horta.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *